Muslims, as do Jews, Christians, and other faith groups, believe that this life is a temporal realm, to be viewed as a preparation ground for what is to come after. The afterlife is comprised of resurrection, the Day of Judgment and then either a blissful paradise or a blazing hell.
When a Muslim dies, he or she is washed, usually by a family member, wrapped in a clean white cloth, and buried after a special funeral prayer is performed, preferably all on the same day.
God says in the Quran:
Every soul shall taste death. And you will be given your dues on the Day of Judgment. Only the one who is removed from the brink of Hellfire and admitted into Paradise has achieved ultimate success; and the life of this world is nothing but a material illusion. (Quran 3:185)
The Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace), taught that three things can continue to benefit a person even after their death: charity given toward ongoing works; knowledge that is of benefit; and prayers and supplication made on behalf of pious children.